17世纪是哪年到哪年:《庄子·逍遥游》原文、白话、英译本

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《庄子·逍遥游》原文

  《庄子·内篇·逍遥游第一》

北冥有鱼,其名为鲲。鲲之大,不知其几千里也。化而为鸟,其名为鹏。鹏之背,不知其几千里也。怒而飞,其翼若垂天之云。是鸟也,海运则将徙于南冥。南冥者,天池也。

《齐谐》者,志怪者也。《谐》之言曰:“鹏之徙于南冥也,水击三千里,抟扶摇而上者九万里,去以六月息者也。”野马也,尘埃也,生物之以息相吹也。天之苍苍,其正色邪?其远而无所至极邪?其视下也,亦若是则已矣。

且夫水之积也不厚,则其负大舟也无力。覆杯水于坳堂之上,则芥为之舟。置杯焉则胶,水浅而舟大也。风之积也不厚,则其负大翼也无力。故九万里,则风斯在下矣,而后乃今培风;背负青天而莫之夭阏者,而后乃今将图南。

蜩与学鸠笑之曰:“我决起而飞,抢榆枋而止,时则不至而控于地而已矣,奚以之九万里而南为?”适莽苍者,三餐而反,腹犹果然;适百里者,宿舂粮;适千里者,三月聚粮。之二虫又何知!

小知不及大知,小年不及大年。奚以知其然也?朝菌不知晦朔,蟪蛄不知春秋,此小年也。楚之南有冥灵者,以五百岁为春,五百岁为秋;上古有大椿者,以八千岁为春,八千岁为秋。而彭祖乃今以久特闻,众人匹之,不亦悲乎!

汤之问棘也是已:
汤之问棘曰:“上下四方有极乎?”
棘曰:“无极之外,复无极也。穷发之北有冥海者,天池也。有鱼焉,其广数千里,未有知其修者,其名为鲲。有鸟焉,其名为鹏,背若太山,翼若垂天之云,抟扶摇羊角而上者九万里,绝云气,负青天,然后图南,且适南冥也。斥鴳笑之曰:“彼且奚适也?我腾跃而上,不过数仞而下,翱翔蓬蒿之间,此亦飞之至也,而彼且奚适也?”此小大之辩也。

故夫知效一官,行比一乡,德合一君而征一国者,其自视也亦若此矣。而宋荣子犹然笑之。且举世而誉之而不加劝,举世而非之而不加沮,定乎内外之分,辩乎荣辱之境,斯已矣。彼其于世未数数然也。虽然,犹有未树也。夫列子御风而行,泠然善也,旬有五日而后反。彼于致福者,未数数然也。此虽免乎行,犹有所待者也。

若夫乘天地之正,而御六气之辩,以游无穷者,彼且恶乎待哉!
故曰:至人无己,神人无功,圣人无名。

尧让天下于许由,曰:“日月出矣,而爝火不息,其于光也,不亦难乎!时雨降矣,而犹浸灌,其于泽也,不亦劳乎!夫子立而天下治,而我犹尸之,吾自视缺然。请致天下。”

许由曰:“子治天下,天下既已治也,而我犹代子,吾将为名乎?名者实之宾也,吾将为宾乎?鹪鹩巢于深林,不过一枝;偃鼠饮河,不过满腹。归休乎君,予无所用天下为!庖人虽不治庖,尸祝不越樽俎而代之矣。”

肩吾问于连叔曰:“吾闻言于接舆,大而无当,往而不返。吾惊怖其言犹河汉而无极也,大有径庭,不近人情焉。”
连叔曰:“其言谓何哉?”

“曰‘藐姑射之山,有神人居焉。肌肤若冰雪,绰约若处子;不食五谷,吸风饮露;乘云气,御飞龙,而游乎四海之外;其神凝,使物不疵疠而年谷熟。’吾以是狂而不信也。”

连叔曰:“然,瞽者无以与乎文章之观,聋者无以与乎钟鼓之声。岂唯形骸有聋盲哉?夫知亦有之。是其言也,犹时女也。之人也,之德也,将旁礴万物以为一,世蕲乎乱,孰弊弊焉以天下为事!之人也,物莫之伤,大浸稽天而不溺,大旱金石流、土山焦而不热。是其尘垢秕糠,将犹陶铸尧舜者也,孰肯分分然以物为事!”

宋人资章甫而适越,越人断发文身,无所用之。尧治天下之民,平海内之政。往见四子藐姑射之山,汾水之阳,窅然丧其天下焉。

惠子谓庄子曰:“魏王贻我大瓠之种,我树之成而实五石。以盛水浆,其坚不能自举也。剖之以为瓢,则瓠落无所容。非不呺然大也,吾为其无用而掊之。”

庄子曰:“夫子固拙于用大矣。宋人有善为不龟手之药者,世世以洴澼絖为事。客闻之,请买其方百金。聚族而谋之曰:‘我世世为洴澼絖,不过数金。今一朝而鬻技百金,请与之。’客得之,以说吴王。越有难,吴王使之将。冬,与越人水战,大败越人,裂地而封之。能不龟手一也,或以封,或不免于洴澼絖,则所用之异也。今几有五石之瓠,何不虑以为大樽而浮乎江湖,而忧其瓠落无所容?则夫子犹有蓬之心也夫!”

惠子谓庄子曰:“吾有大树,人谓之樗。其大本臃肿而不中绳墨,其小枝卷曲而不中规矩。立之涂,匠者不顾。今子之言,大而无用,众所同去也。”

庄子曰:“子独不见狸牲乎?卑身而伏,以候敖者;东西跳梁,不辟高下;中于机辟,死于罔罟。今夫斄牛,其大若垂天之云。此能为大矣,而不能执鼠。今子有大树,患其无用,何不树之于无何有之乡,广莫之野,仿徨乎无为其侧,逍遥乎寝卧其下。不夭斤斧,物无害者,无所可用,安所困苦哉!

 

《庄子·逍遥游》白话

  北海有一条鱼,它的名字叫做鲲。鲲的巨大,不知道有几千里。变化成为鸟,它的名字叫做鹏。鹏的背,不知道有几千里长;奋起而飞时,它的翅膀象遮盖天空的云气。这只鸟,当海动风起时就飞往南海。那南海,就是个天然的大地。
《齐谐》这本书,是记载怪异之事的。这本书上说:“鹏鸟飞往南海时,激溅起来的水花达三千里,翼拍旋风而直上九万里高空。它飞了六个月才停歇下来。”游气,尘埃,小生物,都是被风吹着在空气中游荡的呀!天气苍苍茫茫,这是它的真正本色吗?还是高远无穷,不能看到它的至极深处呢?高飞九万里的大鹏往下看地面的景象,也不过就是这样的情形。
  水的聚积不深,那么它就没有力量浮载大船。在屋里的洼地里倒一杯水,可以用小草当船,放在里面飘浮着;放上一个大杯子就要胶着在地上,这是水浅而船大的缘故。风的强度不大,那末它就没有力量承负巨大的翅膀。所以,鹏高飞九万里,那风就在它的下面,然后才乘着风力,背负青天而无阻碍地飞往南海。
  蝉和斑鸠讥笑大鹏说:“我们什么时候愿意飞就一下子飞起来,碰到榆树、枋树就停落在上边;有时力气不够、飞不到,落到地上就是了。何必要高飞九万里而到那遥远的南海呢?”
  去近郊旅行的,只带三餐饭,当天回来,肚子还饱饱的;作百里之远的旅行,就必须筹备三个月的粮食。这两只小虫鸟又知道什么呢?
“小知”不知道“大知”,“小年”不知道“大年”。怎么知道是这样的呢?见了太阳就死的“朝菌”,不知道一天的时光;春生夏死,夏生秋死的“蟪蛄”,不知道一年的时光,这就是“小年”。楚国的南边有只灵龟,从五百年的一个春季,五百年为一个秋季;上古时代有一颗大椿树,以八千年为一个春季,八千年为一个秋季,这就是“大年”。而只活了八百岁的彭祖,却以长寿之名流传人间;大家都羡慕他,这岂不是太可怜了吗!
  商汤问棘也有这样的话:
  汤问:“上下四方有极限吗?”
棘说:“无极之外,又是无极!在那个极荒远的北极地方的北边,有一个无边无际的大海,那是天池。那里边有一条鱼,它的身子有几千里宽,没有人知道它有多么长,它的名字叫做鲲。有只鸟,它的名字叫做鹏,鹏的背象泰山,翅膀象遮盖天空的云气,乘着旋风而直上九万里的高空,超绝云气,背负青天,然后向南飞翔,而往南海。生活在小水洼里的鴳雀讥笑它说:'它想飞到哪里去呢?我飞腾起来,不过十几尺高就落下来,在蓬蒿之间自由自在的飞翔,这也是很愉快的啊!而它究竟是要飞到哪里去呢?’”
  这就是小和大的分别。
  那些才智可以胜任一官之职,行为可以联合一乡群众,德行合于一君的要求而能取得一国信任的人,他们自鸣得意,也和蝉、斑鸠、鴳雀一个样。而宋荣子不禁嗤笑他们。宋荣子不因整个世界的人称誉他而奋勉;也不因整个世界的人诽谤他而沮丧。他能认定内我和外物的分际,辨别清楚光荣和耻辱的界限。就这样罢了!他对于世俗的名誉,是未曾汲汲追求的。虽然这样,但他还有未曾树立的。
  列子乘风游行,飘然自得,过了五十天而后回来。他对于求福的事,是未曾济济追求的。像他这样,虽然可以免徒步之劳,但毕竟有所依持。
  若能顺着自然的规律,而把握六气的变化,以遨游于无穷的宇宙,他还有什么依持的呢!
  所以说:“至人无已”,“神人无功”,“圣人无名”。
  尧把天下让给许由,说:“日月出来了,而烛火还没熄灭,它和日月比起光亮来,不是太没有意思了吗!及时雨普遍降了,还要提灌溉,这对于润泽禾苗,其不是徒劳吗!先生如果在位,定会把天下治理得很好,可是我还占着这个位子,自己觉得很惭愧,请允许我把天下奉交给先生。”
许由说:“你治理天下,天下已经治理得很好了,我若再来代替你,我为着名吗?名是实的影子,我要做影子吗?鹪鹩在森林里筑巢,不过占一棵树枝;偃鼠喝大河里的水,不过喝满一肚皮。你回去吧,算了吧,我的君啊!天下对我是没有什么用的。厨师就是不做祭祀用的饭菜,掌祭典的人也决不能越位来代替他的工作。”
  肩吾问连叔说:“我听了接舆的一番言论,大而无当,不着边际。我惊讶他那言论,就像天上的银河而看不见它的首尾;真是怪诞背谬,不近人情啊!”
  连叔说:“他说了些什么呢?”
  肩吾说:“他说:'遥远的姑射山中,有一神人居住在里边。那神人皮肤洁白,如同冰雪;姿态柔婉,如同处女;不吃五谷,只是吸清风喝露水;乘着云气,架着飞龙,在四海之外遨游。他的精神凝聚,使万物不受灾害,年年五谷丰收。’我认为这些话是狂妄而不可信的。”
  连叔说:“是呀!瞎子,无法让他领会文彩的美观;聋子,无法让他知晓钟鼓的乐声。岂只是形骸有聋有瞎,在智慧上也有啊!听你刚才说的话,你还和往日一样,一点也没有进步。”
“那个神人,他的德行,与万物和为一体。世人期望他来治理天下,他哪里肯辛辛苦苦的管这种微不足道的事情呢!这样的人,没有什么东西可以伤害他,洪水滔天也淹不着他;大旱把金石溶化了,把土地烧焦了,他也不觉得热。他的'尘垢秕糠’,也可以制造出尧、舜来。他哪里肯把治理天下当作自己的事业呢!”
  宋国有人贩运“章甫”到越国去卖;越国人,头发剃得精光,身上刺着花纹,这种帽子对于他们是无用的。
  尧治理天下的人民,使海内政治清平;他到遥远的姑射山中,汾水的南边,拜见了四位得道的真人,他不禁恍然大悟,把天下都忘掉了。
  惠子对庄子说:“魏王送我一种大葫芦的种子,我把它种在地里,成长而结出的葫芦有五石的容量;用来盛水,它的坚硬程度却不能胜任;把它锯开来做瓢,却又没有那么大的水缸可以容纳。它不是不大,我认为他它没有什么用处,就把它砸碎了。”
庄子说:“这是你不会使用大的东西啊!宋国有一个人,善于制造不龟裂手的药物,他家世世代代以漂丝絮为业。有个客人听说了,愿意出百金收买他的药方。于是集合全家人来商量说:'我家世世代代以漂丝絮为业,所得不过数金;现今卖出这个药方,立刻可得百金,我看还是卖了吧。’这位客人得了这个药方,去游说吴王。这时越国正有困难,吴王就派他为将,率兵在冬天跟越国水战,因为有不龟裂手的药,大败越国;吴王就划分了土地封赏给他。同是一个不龟裂手的药方,有人因此得到封赏,有人却只是用来漂洗丝絮,这就是使用方法的不同。现在你有五百石容量的葫芦,为什么就不想到把它作为腰舟而浮游于江湖之上?只是愁它大得无处容纳,可见你的心如茅塞一般没有开通啊!”
  惠子对庄子说:“我有一棵大树,人们把它叫做'樗’。庞大树身那么臃肿,不能合乎绳墨;它的小枝那么卷曲,不能合乎规矩。生长在大路旁边;经过的匠人都不肯理睬它。现在你的言论,大而无用,是大家都不相信的。”
庄子说:“你不曾看见那野猫和黄鼠狼吗?卑伏着身子,等待出游的小动物;东西跳跃掠夺,不避高低,往往踏中捕兽的机关,死于网罟之中。再看那嫠牛,庞大的身子象遮盖天空的云气,有大的本领,但不能捕鼠。现在你有这么一棵大树,愁它无用,为什么不把它种在虚无的乡土里,广大无边的旷野里;无所为地在它旁边徘徊,逍遥自在地在它下边躺着,不遭受斧头砍伐,也没有东西会来侵害它。虽然没有什么用处,但又有什么祸患呢!”

《庄子·逍遥游》英译本

版本1:

  A Happy Excursion
   In the northern ocean there is a fish, called the k'un, I do not know how many thousand li in size. This k'un changes into a bird, called the p'eng. Its back is I do not know how many thousand li in breadth. When it is moved, it flies, its wings obscuring the sky like clouds.
  When on a voyage, this bird prepares to start for the Southern Ocean, the Celestial Lake. And in the Records of Marvels we read that when the p'eng flies southwards, the water is smitten for a space of three thousand li around, while the bird itself mounts upon a great wind to a height of ninety thousand li, for a flight of six months'duration.
  There mounting aloft, the bird saw the moving white mists of spring, the dust-clouds, and the living things blowing their breaths among them. It wondered whether the blue of the sky was its real color, or only the result of distance without end, and saw that the things on earth appeared the same to it.
  If there is not sufficient depth, water will not float large ships. Upset a cupful into a hole in the yard, and a mustard-seed will be your boat. Try to float the cup, and it will be grounded, due to the disproportion between water and vessel.
  So with air. If there is not sufficient a depth, it cannot support large wings. And for this bird, a depth of ninety thousand li is necessary to bear it up. Then, gliding upon the wind, with nothing save the clear sky above, and no obstacles in the way, it starts upon its journey to the south.
  A cicada and a young dove laughed, saying, "Now, when I fly with all my might, 'tis as much as I can do to get from tree to tree. And sometimes I do not reach, but fall to the ground midway. What then can be the use of going up ninety thousand li to start for the south?"
  He who goes to the countryside taking three meals with him comes back with his stomach as full as when he started. But he who travels a hundred li must take ground rice enough for an overnight stay. And he who travels a thousand li must supply himself with provisions for three months. Those two little creatures, what should they know?
  Small knowledge has not the compass of great knowledge any more than a short year has the length of a long year. How can we tell that this is so? The fungus plant of a morning knows not the alternation of day and night. The cicada knows not the alternation of spring and autumn. Theirs are short years. But in the south of Ch'u there is a mingling (tree) whose spring and autumn are each of five hundred years'duration. And in former days there was a large tree which had a spring and autumn each of eight thousand years. Yet, P'eng Tsu is known for reaching a great age and is still, alas! an object of envy to all!
  It was on this very subject that the Emperor T'ang spoke to Chi, as follows: "At the north of Ch'iungta, there is a Dark Sea, the Celestial Lake. In it there is a fish several thousand li in breadth, and I know not how many in length. It is called the k'un. There is also a bird, called the p'eng, with a back like Mount T'ai, and wings like clouds across the sky. It soars up upon a whirlwind to a height of ninety thousand li, far above the region of the clouds, with only the clear sky above it. And then it directs its flight towards the Southern Ocean.
  "And a lake sparrow laughed, and said: Pray, what may that creature be going to do? I rise but a few yards in the air and settle down again, after flying around among the reeds. That is as much as any one would want to fly. Now, wherever can this creature be going to?" Such, indeed, is the difference between small and great.
  Take, for instance, a man who creditably fills some small office, or whose influence spreads over a village, or whose character pleases a certain prince. His opinion of himself will be much the same as that lake sparrow's. The philosopher Yung of Sung would laugh at such a one. If the whole world flattered him, he would not be affected thereby, nor if the whole world blamed him would he be dissuaded from what he was doing. For Yung can distinguish between essence and superficialities, and understand what is true honor and shame. Such men are rare in their generation. But even he has not established himself.
  Now Liehtse could ride upon the wind. Sailing happily in the cool breeze, he would go on for fifteen days before his return. Among mortals who attain happiness, such a man is rare. Yet although Liehtse could dispense with walking, he would still have to depend upon something.
  As for one who is charioted upon the eternal fitness of Heaven and Earth, driving before him the changing elements as his team to roam through the realms of the Infinite, upon what, then, would such a one have need to depend? Thus it is said, "The perfect man ignores self; the divine man ignores achievement; the true Sage ignores reputation."
  The Emperor Yao wished to abdicate in favor of Hsu: Yu, saying, "If, when the sun and moon are shining, the torch is still lighted, would it be not difficult for the latter to shine? If, when the rain has fallen, one should still continue to water the fields, would this not be a waste of labor? Now if you would assume the reins of government, the empire would be well governed, and yet I am filling this office. I am conscious of my own deficiencies, and I beg to offer you the Empire."
  "You are ruling the Empire, and the Empire is already well ruled," replied Hsu: Yu. "Why should I take your place? Should I do this for the sake of a name? A name is but the shadow of reality, and should I trouble myself about the shadow? The tit, building its nest in the mighty forest, occupies but a single twig. The beaver slakes its thirst from the river, but drinks enough only to fill its belly. I would rather go back: I have no use for the empire! If the cook is unable to prepare the funeral sacrifices, the representative of the worshipped spirit and the officer of prayer may not step over the wines and meats and do it for him."
  Chien Wu said to Lien Shu, "I heard Chieh Yu: talk on high and fine subjects endlessly. I was greatly startled at what he said, for his words seemed interminable as the Milky Way, but they are quite detached from our common human experience."
  "What was it?" asked Lien Shu.
  "He declared," replied Chien Wu, "that on the Miao-ku-yi mountain there lives a divine one, whose skin is white like ice or snow, whose grace and elegance are like those of a virgin, who eats no grain, but lives on air and dew, and who, riding on clouds with flying dragons for his team, roams beyond the limit's of the mortal regions. When his spirit gravitates, he can ward off corruption from all things, and bring good crops. That is why I call it nonsense, and do not believe it."
  "Well," answered Lien Shu, "you don't ask a blind man's opinion of beautiful designs, nor do you invite a deaf man to a concert. And blindness and deafness are not physical only. There is blindness and deafness of the mind. His words are like the unspoiled virgin. The good influence of such a man with such a character fills all creation. Yet because a paltry generation cries for reform, you would have him busy himself about the details of an empire!
  "Objective existences cannot harm. In a flood which reached the sky, he would not be drowned. In a drought, though metals ran liquid and mountains were scorched up, he would not be hot. Out of his very dust and siftings you might fashion two such men as Yao and Shun. And you would have him occupy himself with objectives!"
  A man of the Sung State carried some ceremonial caps to the Yu:eh tribes for sale. But the men of Yu:eh used to cut off their hair and paint their bodies, so that they had no use for such things.
  The Emperor Yao ruled all under heaven and governed the affairs of the entire country. After he paid a visit to the four sages of the Miao-ku-yi Mountain, he felt on his return to his capital at Fenyang that the empire existed for him no more.
  Hueitse said to Chuangtse, "The Prince of Wei gave me a seed of a large-sized kind of gourd. I planted it, and it bore a fruit as big as a five bushel measure. Now had I used this for holding liquids, it would have been too heavy to lift; and had I cut it in half for ladles, the ladles would have been too flat for such purpose. Certainly it was a huge thing, but I had no use for it and so broke it up."
  "It was rather you did not know how to use large things," replied Chuangtse. "There was a man of Sung who had a recipe for salve for chapped hands, his family having been silk-washers for generations. A stranger who had heard of it came and offered him a hundred ounces of silver for this recipe; whereupon he called together his clansmen and said, 'We have never made much money by silk-washing. Now, we can sell the recipe for a hundred ounces in a single day. Let the stranger have it.'
  "The stranger got the recipe, and went and had an interview with the Prince of Wu. The Yu:eh State was in trouble, and the Prince of Wu sent a general to fight a naval battle with Yu:eh at the beginning of winter. The latter was totally defeated, and the stranger was rewarded with a piece of the King's territory. Thus, while the efficacy of the salve to cure chapped hands was in both cases the same, its applications were different. Here, it secured a title; there, the people remained silk-washers.
  "Now as to your five-bushel gourd, why did you not make a float of it, and float about over river and lake? And you complain of its being too flat for holding things! I fear your mind is stuffy inside."
  Hueitse said to Chuangtse, "I have a large tree, called the ailanthus. Its trunk is so irregular and knotty that it cannot be measured out for planks; while its branches are so twisted that they cannot be cut out into discs or squares. It stands by the roadside, but no carpenter will look at it. Your words are like that tree -- big and useless, of no concern to the world."
  "Have you never seen a wild cat," rejoined Chuangtse, "crouching down in wait for its prey? Right and left and high and low, it springs about, until it gets caught in a trap or dies in a snare. On the other hand, there is the yak with its great huge body. It is big enough in all conscience, but it cannot catch mice. Now if you have a big tree and are at a loss what to do with it, why not plant it in the Village of Nowhere, in the great wilds, where you might loiter idly by its side, and lie down in blissful repose beneath its shade? There it would be safe from the axe and from all other injury. For being of no use to others, what could worry its mind?"

版本2:

  Free and Easy Wandering
  In the northern darkness there is a fish and his name is K'un. The K'un is so huge I don't know how many thousand li he measures. He changes and becomes a bird whose name is P'eng. The back of the P'eng measures I don't know how many thousand li across and, when he rises up and flies off, his wings are like clouds all over the sky. When the sea begins to move, this bird sets off for the southern darkness, which is the Lake of Heaven.
  The Universal Harmony records various wonders, and it says: “When the P'eng journeys to the southern darkness, the waters are roiled for three thousand li. He beats the whirlwind and rises ninety thousand li, setting off on the sixth-month gale.”Wavering heat, bits of dust, living things blown about by the wind - the sky looks very blue. Is that its real color, or is it because it is so far away and has no end? When the bird looks down, all he sees is blue too.
  If water is not piled up deep enough, it won't have the strength to bear up a big boat. Pour a cup of water into a hollow in the floor and bits of trash will sail on it like boats. But set the cup there and it will stick fast, for the water is too shallow and the boat too large. If wind is not piled up deep enough, it won't have the strength to bear up great wings. Therefore when the P'eng rises ninety thousand li, he must have the wind under him like that. Only then can he mount on the back of the wind, shoulder the blue sky, and nothing can hinder or block him. Only then can he set his eyes to the south.
  The cicada and the little dove laugh at this saying, ``When we make an effort and fly up, we can get as far as the elm or the sapanwood tree, but sometimes we don't make it and just fall down on the ground. Now how is anyone going to go ninety thousand li to the south!''
  If you go off to the green woods nearby, you can take along food for three meals and come back with your stomach as full as ever. If you are going a hundred li, you must grind your grain the night before; and if you are going a thousand li you must start getting together provisions three months in advance. What do these two creatures understand? Little understanding cannot come up to great understanding; the short-lived cannot come up to the long-lived.
  How do I know this is so? The morning mushroom knows nothing of twilight and dawn; the summer cicada knows nothing of spring and autumn. They are short-lived. South of Ch'u there is a caterpillar which counts five hundred years as one spring and five hundred years as one autumn. Long, long ago there was a great rose of Sharon that counted eight thousand years as one spring and eight thousand years as one autumn. Yet P'eng-tsu alone is famous today for having lived a long time, and everybody tries to ape him. Isn't it pitiful!
  Among the questions of T'ang to Ch'i we find the same thing. In the bald and barren north, there is a dark sea, the Lake of Heaven. In it is a fish which is several thousand li across, and no one knows how long. His name is K'un. there is also a bird there, named P'eng, with a back like Mount T'ai and wings like clouds filling the sky. He beats the whirlwind, leaps into the air, and rises up ninety thousand li, cutting through the clouds and mist, shouldering the blue sky, and then he turns his eyes south and prepares to journey to the southern darkness.
  The little quail laughs at him, saying, ``Where does he think he's going? I give a great leap and fly up, but I never get more than ten or twelve yards before I come down fluttering among the weeds and brambles. And that's the best kind of flying anyway! Where does he think he's going?''Such is the difference between big and little.
  Therefore a man who has wisdom enough to fill one office effectively, good conduct enough to impress one community, virtue enough to please one ruler, or talent enough to be called into service in one state, has the same kind of self-pride as these little creatures. Sung Jung-tzu would certainly burst out laughing at such a man. The whole world could praise Sung Jung-tzu and it wouldn't make him exert himself; the whole world could condemn him and it wouldn't make him mope. He drew a clear line between the internal and the external, and recognized the boundaries of true glory and disgrace. But that was all. As far as the world went, he didn't fret or worry, but there was still ground he left unturned.
  Lieh Tzu could ride the wind and go soaring around with cool and breezy skill, but after fifteen days he came back to earth. As far as the search for good fortune went, he didn't fret and worry. He escaped the trouble of walking, but he still had to depend on something to get around. If he had only mounted on the truth of Heaven and Earth, ridden the changes of the six breaths, and thus wandered through the boundless, then what would he have had to depend on?
  Therefore I say, the Perfect Man has no self; the Holy Man has no merit; the Sage has no fame.